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Undergoing massive transformations caused by industrialization, the nineteenth-century city proved a privileged motif for the first practitioners of the new medium of photography.

Since the slow photosensitive materials stimulated photographing the solid forms of the built environment in daylight, photography and urban modernity were connected from the very start. Turning her apartment or a midtown bank office into a room-size pinhole camera, Lutter used the same elevated viewpoint favored by nineteenth-century photographers such as Louis Daguerre, Friedrich von Martens, and Edouard Baldus.

Rejecting conventional rules of composition, their panoramic images of Paris, for instance, include not only the famous monuments, but also the whimsical rhythms of the rooftops and chimneys of hundreds of vernacular buildings. At a time when artists and writers were starting to present the city as a place of endless fragmentation and flux, photography was the new medium that was perfectly suited to capturing the numerous, insignificant details that constitute urban space.

However, because the long exposures could not inscribe movement into the image, the everyday hustle and bustle of the boulevards was exchanged for an uncanny silence of Casino Del Sol Golf spaces. Images of urban spaces void of people tell us something about what it means to live in such places. The emblem of urban modernity, the crowd, was evoked by means of its explicit absence. Given this perspective, the image of the deserted city not only threads through the history of urban photography; it also permeates the history of pictorial and literary evocations of the modern city.

Such a predilection for places of urban emptiness and silence can be found in the writings of Charles Baudelaire, who conjured the Non Cash Casino Youtube Hot tempo of the metropolis by giving form to its vacancy. In this tradition, which also includes Symbolist and Surrealist writings and visual art, urban emptiness evokes the alienation and solitude of modern city dwelling. The emptiness of the city at night seems to be part of an urban nightmare, which can also be found in the ubiquitous images of lonely nocturnal walkers in film noir.

In spite of its apparent emptiness, the city is presented as a place consisting of layers and superimpositions.

Its emptiness is deceptive, for the city is marked by the density of buildings, goods, people, information, and activities. In contrast with the agora, the forum, and the village or city square, these non-places are occupied only occasionally and on a strictly isolated basis, and they are no longer capable of expressing collective identities.

The new economic space is made up of an asymmetrical network of exchanges that is not dependent on the specificity of locale.

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Castells convincingly demonstrates that as a result of transformations in the late-capitalist production process, the traditional hierarchical relationship between center and periphery have been radically altered.

Paradoxically, her use of the age-old, proto-photographic technique of the camera obscura produces urban images that are not Stake Casino Pauma Entertainment odds with the wide variety of so-called post-photographic perspectives, forms, structures, or procedures that are employed today to visualize the contemporary cityscape.

Many contemporary photographers emphasize that a direct, uncompromised, mimetic relationship with the urban is no longer possible. Remarkably, many artists seem to cope with the artificiality of the posturban environment by highlighting the artificiality of their own images. Other artists, by contrast, highlight the artificiality of both their photographs and their subjects by mere photographic means: Still other artists stage their urban scenes with the help of props and scale models Thomas Demand, Edwin Zwakmanwhereas photographers such as Alexander Timtschenko, Luigi Ghiri, Claudio Hills, and Miles Coolidge have photographed real simulations of the urban, such as the fake Venice in Las Vegas, miniature cities, and artificial towns that serve as sites for training children to deal with street traffic and soldiers with urban combat situations.

In short, numerous examples of contemporary urban photography Non Cash Casino Youtube Hot artificial spaces and constructions as real, whereas the real is interpreted as the result of processes of staging and strategies of concealment. The contemporary cityscape is turned into an uncanny realm that consists of scale models, shiny surfaces, and lighting techniques that refer to the optical modes of both entertainment and surveillance that invisibly govern the urban environment.

However, the predilection for the artificial is certainly also provoked by the proliferation of images and the practices of staging that urban policy makers increasingly use. In an age of city marketing, which relies heavily on commercialized urban images, contemporary urban photographers are compelled to take a self-conscious position in relation to their own medium and the functions it serves.

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On the one hand, bathed in a seemingly lunar light, her spectral renderings of skyscraper cities, power stations, and airports share similarities with those of many other artists who deploy post-photographic techniques and strategies in order to evoke processes that are invisible and thus hard to Non Cash Casino Youtube Hot such as spatial disintegration, social segregation, and the artificiality of the contemporary built environment.

However, Lutter also questions the direct relationship between the fictional and the factual in a series of pictures that show spaces in which her photographs have been installed.

Since the camera captures a negative image, a double inversion occurs, which results in a positive image within a negative image of urban landscapes and postindustrial ruins.

Conflating photographic subject, camera, and exhibition space, Lutter demonstrates how debates about the nature of images in the post-photographic age of digital simulation have only revived American Online Casino Paypal Payout relevance of proto-photographic media such as the camera obscura.

Hovering between the silent images of the modern metropolis of nineteenth-century photographers and the spectacular imagery of the contemporary city, Lutter has also set up her camera obscura in the vicinity of world-famous monuments such as the squares and canals of Venice and the pyramids in Egypt.

Not coincidentally, both locales are not only top destinations in the era of global tourism but also sites that for centuries have attracted the attention of travelers who have made or collected graphic, pictorial, or photographic images of these places.

Connected with the production and distribution of images from its inception, tourism more or less developed simultaneously with photography. Both products of industrial modernity, they are inherently connected. Since the mid-nineteenth century, tourism has been a search for the photogenic, and travel has been transformed into an activity of accumulating pictures.

Supported by photography, traveling is transformed into a movement from one sight to another. Disturbing elements are effaced. Tourism is, on the one hand, a product of this process—tourist attractions are elements detached from their original context and therefore perfect photographic subjects. On the other hand, tourism is identified as a remedy against fragmentation.

Sightseeing is a kind of collective striving for transcendence of the modern totality, a way of attempting to overcome the discontinuity of modernity, of incorporating its fragments into a unified experience. Paradoxically, the mechanical reproduction of images is what puts the tourist in motion in order to look at the original. A spot only becomes authentic when copies of it are produced, distributed, and consumed.

On the contrary, photographic reproductions themselves have become the aura of the original. Thus, the widespread pictures of Venetian canals, churches, and palaces lend luster to the real city of Venice. In the posturban landscape of global networks, historical cities such as Venice are more and more presented and sold as collections of images.

They are not only endlessly reproduced photographically; they are often also literally turned into simulacra or reflections of themselves and their pasts. Christine Boyer, and other critics and scholars have demonstrated, the histories of cities have been manipulated, recycled, simulated, and artificially resuscitated in the interests of commercial tourism.

Non Cash Casino Youtube Hot peculiar topography prevented the massive transformations that most other cities underwent in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Emphasis on the historical identity of a city is, on the one hand, enables the European city to prove that it is capable of resisting the process of urban dilution.

On the other hand, however, stressing historical identity indicates that the city is losing its other economic functions and is restructuring itself according to the logic of mass tourism. With its glorious architecture, art treasures, and spectacular topography, Venice attracted many travelers, scholars, and tourists, but early photographers were certainly also fascinated by the city because it offered the possibility of juxtaposing monuments and Non Cash Casino Youtube Hot, which were transformed into mirror-like surfaces without the appearance of undulations due to lengthy exposure times.

Monuments are not usually motifs for Lutter, yet because her work literally inscribes the traces of time, the history of the monument might be recalled. Nineteenth-century urban photography was closely related to the notion of the monument, which was triggered by the process of urban modernization that inevitably entailed the destruction of historical buildings.

Both a product of industrial modernity and a means of fixing time, photography became a tool for commemoration from the start. Lutter has even photographically explored archetypal monuments such as the pyramids of Giza and Dahsur, which she photographed in with the help of an overseas travel trunk transformed into a pinhole camera. Like a camera obscura, a pyramid is a device of light; for its shape is thought to represent the descending rays of the sun.

Most pyramids, moreover, were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone in order to give them a brilliance when viewed from a distance. In the Great Pyramid, one of the narrow shafts that extends from the main burial chamber points directly toward a dark part of the sky.

Inside In Graz and Cologne: Manchester University Press, Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity London: Blackwell,p.

Memory and Representation in the Digital Age, ed. Photographing the Future Rotterdam: Nai Publishers,pp. Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies London: See also Tom Selwyn ed.

Myths and Mythmaking in Modern Tourism Chichester: Transformations of Travel and Theory, ed. Chris Rojek and John Urry London: Routledge,pp. Practices and Geographical Knowledge, ed. Photography, Travel and Visual Culture Manchester: California University Press,pp. Scripts, Signs, Memory, ed. Sallie Westwood and John Williams London: Routledge,p. MIT Press,pp.

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