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Treaties that are accepted virtually universally require all ships to fly the flag of an existing nation. Those that do not are defined as pirates, and are subject to treatment as such by any nation's warships. Most nations require ships flying their flag to employ their own nationals, and generally subject them to the onshore laws of that country.

However, there are certain small nations that specialize in granting ships the permission to fly their flags with a minimum of restrictions. In return, these countries receive annual fees in the range of a few thousand dollars per ship or less.

These flags are called "flags of convenience," and the owners of ships flying those flags are allowed to hire anyone they want, and generally do just about anything they want.

Certain international treaties banning piracy, the drug traffic, the slave trade, etc. Technically, each ship is governed by the laws of the country whose flag it flies. While this is not an ideal solution, it is at least a firmly established political category, and thus fits with our general principle of minimizing novelty.

More daring seasteads may choose to go flagless, and we expect them to eventually carve a new niche in maritime law. I think it is useful to describe how the maritime law will tend to get changed. Use an obscure flag; Step 2: Petition international law for a designation other that pirate for outfits that do not fly a flag; Step 3: Actively attend the next maritime law conference and agitate for changes; redefine pirate; restrict boardings to real pirates; not harmless seasteads, etc.

I'm confused about the next section. This all seems like a logical continuation of the previous section. An unavoidable aspect of the ocean environment is the large body of international law which pertains to it. In order to resolve conflicts involving vessels, a policy was established wherein each vessel bears the flag of some nation. Ostensibly, that nation has jurisdiction over the vessel, and is responsible for ensuring its adherence to international maritime law.

In practice, nations such as Panama, Malta, and Liberia offer so-called "flags of convenience", and after taking a fee they pay little attention to the actions of the registrant. A seastead is potentially high-profile, and if it proves a serious embarrassment to a registrar it may quickly lose its flag. On the other hand, ships are very large and very expensive, and despite a number of serious incidents, the small and enterprising nations have continued providing such services.

There are a large number of agreements, treaties, and conventions regarding issues as diverse as environmental protection, resource use, crew safety, and record-keeping. Many nations have signed these, many have not, and they are erratically enforced it is up to the flagging country to do so.

Complying with these laws would be an onerous process for a seastead, and it is unclear to what degree it will be necessary.

We'll need page numbers here. Piracy is still a significant problem on the high seas, but does not seem particularly worrisome for a seastead. Much of it is small-scale theft - for example, of the attacks reported in , only 71 involved guns [ http: Being above the waves and strong enough to withstand them will make a seastead a rather difficult target for this kind of criminal.

Some piracy is large-scale, in which entire ships are captured and their goods fenced. Forged documents are used to obtain a new load of cargo from legitimate shippers, which is then stolen as well. A seastead should not be valuable enough for the latter, as it is not a cargo ship, and would be rather conspicuous in port.

The armed and organized groups which seasteads should be the most worried about are the Navies of traditional governments.

This should go in the paper somewhere: Legal quandaries similar to the statehood of Sealand are no longer possible today. Since the third conference on the laws of the sea, the nearest neighboring state is now required to consent to the construction of any artificial island pursuant to the convention on the laws of the sea of the United Nations on December 10, , in Montego Bay. Moreover, this convention requires the neighboring state to pull down the artificial constructions immediately after use or to have them removed.

According to this convention, there is no transitional law and no possibility to consent to the existence of such a construction which was previously approved or built by the neighboring state. This means that it is unimaginable that a case like Sealand will ever occur again. An artificial island can no longer be constructed and then claimed as a sovereign state, or as state territory for the purposes of extension of an exclusive economic zone or territorial waters.

Several potential ventures refs - Atlantis, etc. Unfortunately OTEC, or Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion, which is a technique to generate energy from the temperature differential between surface and deep water, is mostly theoretical right now.

There are no currently operating plants, and those that were built in the past were operated for research purposes ref. OTEC does not scale well, as small plants cannot overcome pumping costs to achieve positive net power generation ref , so it requires a huge capital investment.

Some projects have treated OTEC as practically free energy for ocean cities, when it is quite expensive indeed. Professor Wolf Hilbertz came up with fascinating idea of "seacrete", a material which is created by submerging an electrified wire mesh in seawater. Minerals are drawn out of the water by the current, and create a cement-like substance. The number commonly cited for seacrete energy requirements 4.

Unfortunately, this figure has two serious flaws: When corrected, it turns out that seacrete costs times as much as simply buying concrete. Thus designs based on these technologies are seriously flawed. Seasteaders will not make the mistake of counting on an impractical technology to make their vision happen.

Our designs, while novel, are firmly rooted in standard engineering techniques. For example, our power will come from solar panels and wind turbines, not OTEC plants. Many proposed ventures are impossibly large in scale. Grand visions are inspiring, but difficult to make into reality, especially when trying to create something entirely new. The Freedom Ship is a classic example [ ]. Their mile-long design will cost ten billion dollars. That sort of funding is not easy to get, to say the least, especially for a piece of property that might be destroyed by a storm.

Our designs are much smaller, and thus the path to funding them is much clearer. Who do you think will begin construction first? Rome wasn't built in a day, markets don't appear instantly, and a succesful business leverages each stage into the next. We consider the idea that the first sea-city will be for ten thousand people ludicrous.

Instead, we envision a series of gradual steps. First we build a mini-seastead prototype, anchored in sheltered or coastal waters perhaps one of each , to demonstrate our seriousness and our design. When we have enough interest, we build the first deep-water self-sufficient seastead, for somewhere between 20 and people. As interest in seasteading grows, more units can be built.

Each may cater to a slightly different audience, or experiment with different engineering and political designs. They can be made modular, and joined together into the sea-city many have envisioned [Atlantis, Nexus]. We agree that this is a highly desirable outcome, but it is our firm belief a sea-village must come first.

If you make the first step too high, you will never reach it, as the many participants who became frustrated with and dropped out of new-country projects can attest. Good quote from vladi's: An isolated piece of paradise, its beaches and forests yours alone to enjoy.

A virtual private kingdom under the sun. While this is enough for most of us, for some, only a real kingdom or republic, or principality, or? For these folks, a private island is but a means to an end - the establishment of a new, independent country. But is such a thing really possible? The short answer is a pretty conclusive ' no'. Since the early 20th century, every square foot of dry land on Earth has been claimed by at least one country or another, which pretty much rules out discovering an unmapped tropical paradise, planting your flag, and setting yourself up as the local sovereign.

Similarly, existing countries are more than a little reluctant to part with pieces of their national territory, no matter the financial incentives offered. However, 30 years ago one man hatched an enterprising if a little bizarre scheme at getting around these little details. The problems facing prospective nation-founders are undoubtedly difficult, as evinced by the movement's historical lack of success.

They can be overcome if and only if we rationally consider our options and produce a design which is politically, technologically, and financially feasible, and can progress through a series of realistically sized intermediates. For the reasons which we will outline in this paper, we believe that seasteading meets these criteria. While there is a lot of planning and hard work ahead, there are no substantial leaps of faith required. As you may have realized by now, this makes our vision fairly unique.

So if you are interested in its details, please continue reading. Just don't expect any "artists renderings" of sprawling sea cities, uses of the term "billion dollars", or hints that we are developing a cool new technology which no one else knows about.

Instead, you'll learn how we plan to put together old techniques in new ways, how we keep our costs down, what are business plans are, and similar fundamentals. By the end, you should have a good grasp on the process involved in making this vision a reality. And perhaps, we hope an interest in being part of that process.

A seastead needs to survive and thrive in the ocean environment. What is the ocean environment? The disolved salt causes two problems -- first, it causes many materials to corrode and second, it renders the water unfit for direct human consumption. In addition to the water, the ocean environment has weather. This includes temperature variation, wind, humidity, rain, etc.

The wind causes the ocean to sport ocean waves, which can become quite significant. Explain rogue waves, distribution of wave weights, then report on two things: As we researched ocean storms, we discovered that the ocean in the middle of a storm is an extremely hostile environment.

The amount of energy stored in a large wave is really quite scary. We managed to find a book on waves and beaches [ Bascom ] in a local library.

There is a discussion about rogue waves that is quite interesting. A rogue wave is a wave that is significantly larger than its neighbors. From the few ships that have survived a rogue wave, what appears to happen is that the rogue wave has a deep trough followed by a high peak.

The ship basically "falls" into the trough, and gets clobbered by the high peak that comes crashing over the top. The peak alone is not the problem, it is the combination of the two that are deadly. In addition, the book states some robabilities about how frequent rogue waves are. For a seastead that is intended to last decades, rogue waves are a virtual certainty. See if highest waves occur in certain months. Find more data sources. Thanks to american tax dollars at work, there is a fair amount of oceanographic data available from the National Data Buoy Center at the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration.

For example, this buoy which is miles west of Oregon, recorded its highest significant wave height in the last 25 years as The wave book said that such waves were unstable and tended to be broken by the wind, which is good because they don't last but bad because breaking waves have tons of energy.

These estimates matches the average wave heights and highest waves reported for "The Perfect Storm" [ Merc ]. Also the big numbers are all for storms that can be seen well in advance, so dealing with them may be too conservative as we may be able to avoid such storms if seastead is mobile.

Coaststead will be able to avoid them by heading into protected waters. In Bascom, the highest observed waves listed are 35m not rogue waves , due to hurricane strength winds blowing for an extended period of time, which matches these predictions.

The highest possible wave given earth's metereology is 75m. From these numbers, a seastead with a height of 55m from the surface of the ocean to its lowest deck should be able to survive hurricane conditions anywhere. Naturally we would prefer to lower this number, but it will serve as an upper bound. Total pillar length will of course be determined by adding the vertical height of our buoyancy and the height of our decks to our necessary span.

Estimating these quantities at 10m each, our tentative guess at pillar length is about 50m, or about the height of a? Note that we may not need to fully decouple from rogue waves - as long as our buoyancy stays under water, it should be OK if it experiences some wave force once every , storm waves.

Given how fast coupling falls off, if we are partially decoupled from rogue waves we'll be fully decoupled from all other waves. As we were researching sea structures we ran across the book Materials for Marine Systems and Structures edited by Dennis Hasson and C. This book devotes an entire chapter to the topic of biofouling -- plant life attaching itself to your flotation device.

In other words -- barnacles on your bottom! Basically, biofouling occurs in two steps -- microfouling followed by macrofouling. Microfouling is the attachment single celled organisms to the surface. Macrofouling is the attachment of larger organisms such as barnacles and mussels. There is a chart on page that suggests that macrofouling is strongly dependent on proximity to the shore. The further you are from shore, the less of a problem it is.

If macrofouling persists, according to the book on page , chlorine is an effective biocide:. There is no consensus about the concentration of chlorine needed to control macrofouling. Similarly, no agreement has been reached about the relative advantages of low-level continuous chlorination compared to intermittent chlorination and the application rates depend on a variety of factors, including the predominant organisms, growth rates, location, season, and water temperature.

In general, the soft macrofouling organisms can be controlled by intermittent chlorination at a level of 1. Hardshelled foulers including barnacles and mussels, require continuous discharge of low-level chlorination -- 0. If biofouling becomes a major problem for the seastead, a system for chlorinating the water around the seastead may need to be developed.

Since chlorine is a nasty chemical to deal with, we hope that macrofouling does not become a problem for the deep seastead. It is not only the oceans surface that is continually moving. Currents are omnipresent, and tend to consist of large cyclical formations with opposite direction of rotation in the northern and southern hemispheres. They range in speed from 0.

They are caused by a number of factors, such as wind, convection, density differences due to variations in salinity, and the Coriolis force. The chart below will give you a general feel for the arrangement of currents: However, it must be noted that these maps are deceptively simple.

Ocean currents form many eddies and transient features, and vary from season to season and year to year. The relevance of these currents to a seastead is that they will push our platform around. Three basic approaches come to mind for dealing with this: Anchoring equpiment is quite expensive, especially the lines, which are the limitation on what depth one can anchor at.

These and other synthetic lines are the only real acceptable solution for deep water anchorages, as braided steel lines are too heavy and can corrode. You drop the anchor to the bottom, pump out all the water, and it sucks its self into the sea floor. To retrieve the anchor you pump it full of water and it pops out of the sea floor. These are the best solution for deep water heavy anchorages. The sea floor for the most part is covered with about 50' of sludge and muck which actually makes for a pretty good hold.

Because of the high cost of lines, one's potential anchoring locations are limited to areas of relatively shallow water. Still, an achoring system will be quite useful and is likely to be one method for location control.

A seastead will likely have either its own propulsion system or a tugboat to drag it around. For smaller course adjustments, or running from storms, an active propulsion system is excellent. One thing to note is that drag is proportional to velocity squared, so if we are willing to settle for slow movement the energy costs are not prohibitive. Still, we are moving a large object, and the currents will be pushing us constantly, so relying on active propulsion will add to the operating expenses of a seastead, and reduce its self-sufficiency.

This thought brings us to the third option, drifting, which stems from the observation that ocean currents are roughly circular. With some fine-tuning, we can be pulled by them forever, circling towards a pole and then back to the equator. Moving radially will change the period of our cycle, which may be desirable to avoid seasonal storms. Active propulsion can be used to transition between current formations.

There are also areas such as the equator where currents are fairly slow, and thus we can drift without much movement. Early seasteads will likely use a combination of these methods, spending some time at anchor, some time drifting, and occasionally being pulled by a tugboat.

There is no one correct design for a seastead. Depending upon your goals and budget a variety of different designs are possible. One important feature across all designs is how safe the design will be in the face of severe ocean weather. The seastead designs partion into two basic catagories -- anchored seasteads and free floating seasteads. An anchored seastead is one that is attached to the surface of the planet. A free floating seastead is not anchored to the planet surface and can be moved around.

There are advantages and disadvantages to for each catagory. In the catagory of anchored seasteads there are three basic designs: Islands There are many islands that are currently uninhabited that could be easily purchased and colonized [ PrivateIslands ].

The excellent book Blueprint for Paradise [ Norgrove ] by Russ Norgrove discusses what is involved with colonizing a tropical island. Atolls An atoll is a special class of island that is formed when the ocean has worn a volcanic peak down to a roughly circular shape. One of the more famous island atolls is the Bikini island atoll in the Marshall islands [ Bikini ].

The nice characteristic of atolls is that they are relatively plentiful and many of them are uninhabited. Many atolls tend to form a break water around a the calm harbor in the middle.

Thus, an structure built in the center of an atoll may not need to be as robost to withstand sever ocean weather. Sea Mounts A sea mount is basically an underwater island that does not break the surface of the water. It is possible to build a tower that bridges the distance from the top of the sea mount to the sea surface. The top of the tower can be inhabited as a sea stead. One of the more famous sea mount seasteads is the Principality of Sealand [ Sealand ].

Since sea mounts tend not to have a surrounding break water like atolls, they must be built more robostly. While not as famous as Sealand, oil drilling platforms are an example of a sea mount based seastead [ Helvarg ].

Unlike free floating seasteads, an anchored seastead does not have the option relocating to try to avoid really bad ocean weather. While hurricanes are quite prevelant in the Carribean, there are other parts of the world where hurricanes are much less frequent.

Unfortunately, infrequent does not mean never. For example, the Hawaiian islands are rarely intercepted by hurricanes, but in , hurricane Iniki intercepted the island of Kauai and caused extensive damage [ Iniki ].

When designing an anchored seastead, it may make economic sense to under design the structure so that it can not withstand a direct assalt by a hurricane. In this situation, a plan for constant vigilance in conjunction with an evacuation plan is the prudent course of action. It may be possible to purchase hurricane insurance cover the possibility that the seastead is damaged or destroyed by a bad hurricane. Conversely, the seastead can be designed to withstand a hurricane.

In this case, the structure is designed to withstand high winds and storm surges of 10 meters or more. This adds considerably to the over cost of the seastead. A hurricane safe anchored seastead may be more expensive than a free floating seastead that adopts the policy of avoiding hurricanes. Another disadvantage of anchored seasteads is that Pretty much all islands and atolls that are above sea level have been claimed by some sovergn nation. Thus, using a preexisting island is unlikely to meet the non-technical goal of being free to set its own laws.

Interestingly enough, the Minerva experience [ Minerva ] shows that bringing a sea mount to above sea level can cause a preexisting nation to claim sovergnty where no such claim has existed before. To first approximation, a free floating seastead is a specialized kind of boat. It is a boat that has been designed to reside most of the time in the ocean environment.

Initially, the laws that apply to free floating seasteads will be those of international maritime law. As with anchored platforms, there are numerous designs for free floating seasteads.

Some are listed below: Sailboat Fleet To date, we have not found any published literture on this concept, but it is unlikely that we are the first to think of it. The concept is that a bunch of like minded people could purchase a bunch of sailboats different sizes and costs and sail around the ocean as an intentional community [ IntentionalCommunities ].

By using sailboats, the wind is used for locomotion. A combination of wind power and solar power is used for energy.

Cisterns can be used to collect rain water and solar stills can be used to convert sea water into potable water. The biggest drawback is that sailboats tend to have small deck areas. Thus, it may be difficult to develop sustainable food crops on the sailboat decks alone.

Some of the food concepts from Sailing the Farm by [ Neumeyer ] quite applicable to this concept. Converted Cargo Ship This idea is to purchase an old freighter boat and outfit it as floating community.

The propusion system would be kept in working order, but it would only be used sparingly in order to conserve fuel. One way to think of this concept is as a low budget cruise ship.

Again, a combination of wind and solar power is used for energy. Cisterns and solar stills are used for water. The top surface of the cargo ship can be used for growing food. Sheltered Harbor Seastead This concept is a hybrid between an anchored seastead and a free floating one.

With this idea, the seastead is built to live in the sheltered waters of an atoll or a harbor. This puts the community at the mercy of the sovergn nation that owns the land. However, since all of the living quarters are built on floating platforms, it is possible to relocate the entire community to another sheltered harbor controlled by a more friendly sovergn nation if necessary.

Of course, there is a risk that a serious ocean storm may crop up during relocation and cause the non-seaworthy structures to be seriously damaged or sunk. Spar Designs The next class of design is to build the living area on stilts i. A spar design can have either one spar or multiple spars. The spars present little cross-sectional area to ocean waves that allow the waves to slosh around underneath the main living quarters without imparting much energy to the structure. Initially we started off with a multi-spar design like the one below: We ultimately concluded that it was too expensive for the first iterations of spar designs.

Upon redesign, we came up with a modular single spar design. Multiple single spar systems can be assembled together to get a multi spar design. Below is a view of the seastead hull with the top and outside wall removed. The central spar is inserted into the center. The torroidal floatation hull is divided into 8 equal sized compartments.

Each compartment has a fixed amount of relatively dense ballast e. In addition, ocean water is used as a variable ballest; this is represented by the light blue in the diagram above. Below is a view of the central spar with half of the spar cylinder removed. The central spar is compartmentalized up its length to proved approximately 10 individual water tight compartments.

There is a pressure gage in each compartment. If any compartment springs a leak, the remaining compartments will continue to provide bouyancy. Note shown in the diagram is an access ladder that runs the length of the spar with water tight doors between the compartments. Thus, somebody can go all the way down to the floatation hull from inside the spar. In the August issue of Popular Science, David Helvarg [ Helvarg ] wrote an article about the current state of the art in oil drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico.

In terms of cost per square meter of livable space, these platforms are probably measured in 10's of thousands of dollars per square meter.

What is interesting about oil drilling platforms is that they are the closest thing to permanent ocean structures that I know of. In addition, they are clearly designed to withstand hurricane class ocean storms, since the Gulf of Mexico is the frequrent recipient of such storms. While there are a variety of different kinds of oil drilling platforms, they all basically have a strategy of placing the working platform a distance above the waves on pillars.

Thus, only the pillars have to be designed to withstand the energy of the waves that smash against them. The proposed seastead flotation is submerged well below surface level to reduce coupling with surface waves.

Since the flotation is not at surface level, it is not intrinsically stable. If the bouyancy is slightly negative, the whole seastead will keep on sinking. Conversely, if the bouyancy is slightly positive, the whole seastead will keep on raising until the flotation reaches the surface. The solution to the flotation stability problem is to put a pressure sensor on the flotation and add a feedback loop to adjust the flotation as a function of water depth. If the external pressure is too high i.

Conversely, if the external pressure is too low i. As an additional safety factor, the seastead should have additional floation right below the bottom of the living platform. If, for some reason, the submerged flotation should entirely fail, the seastead would sink only to the bottom of the living platform. Remember, my earlier fixation on 2-liter bottles. Well here is a reasonable place to use them. These guys make new games once a month, sometimes twice, which is a lot more than land-based casinos can pump out.

Frankly the software is less than what most hardcore gamblers would expect. Because of this the majority of American residents still play at offshore websites. This brings fear of tax evasion and the possibility of laundering money from American officials, yet not one arrest has ever been made on a state level.

If regulation becomes federal law than it is very likely these large companies will step in and take over all real money casino game manufacturing. Please do not be mislead elsewhere! Even the state-run websites in NJ are not allowed to offer their games as a certified app. One day it may be the same in the US but as of now there is really no sign of change coming soon. This is not enforced as strongly as some would like, but the legal age of gambling corresponds with the licensing country.

Some casino sites accept players 18 years of age and older, but these are probably a scam as they may not actually pay anyone under Always look for proper certifications and licenses on the websites homepage. Instead, many offer signup bonuses and other promotions. They will increase these rewards to regularly returning customers and offer VIP bonuses to highrollers. Special relationships can be achieved with highroller status.

Speak to the casino host for more info. All real money casinos that are online offer some monetary incentive based on the amount a player bets, with the most common being the comp point. They can be exchanged for cash, and unlike bonuses, they have actual value that can be used on the tables as well as the slots.

Comp points add up fast but may not rollover to the next month after 1 year of no use. Almost every one has both free and real money game modes, which is usually selected while logging-in effectively separating them from each other. The free mode makes for a great way to practice or to see how much you would have won or lost if you were really betting. The other mode labeled free is self explanatory.

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The online gambling market is growing each and every day, and with it change is on the horizon again. It seems that Philippines runs a risk of over-investing in their newly thriving casino sector.

Not many people in Africa can comfortably walk into a casino and place stakes. There is no doubt that gambling in Iowa has increasingly become a money generating venture. Cryptocurrency in gambling sprung up once the currency gained a modicum of momentum. What Are Comp Points?

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