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  1. Aristotle's Politics: Top Ten Quotes, Free Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character In this passage Aristotle aims his criticisms at Plato's proposal in the Republic that rulers should take steps to create unity within the nguyensan.meg: casino.:
    But does that help them in becoming a profitable politician? The foundational claim of my criticism is that Aristotle's statement does not, and indeed cannot, apply to the standards of contemporary public life, as one does not need to be “well trained in habits,” particularly not in virtuous ones, to “profit” from. Living. Food GameKid IllustrationCasino BonusMarch SignsJessica AlbaDiversity QuotesCivil Rights MovementAfrican WomenOnline Casino. jessica alba mlk quote More. His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request.
  2. The testimony of Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes' work (especially The Clouds), is useful in fleshing out a perception of Socrates beyond Plato's work. According to one source, the name Σωκράτης (Sokrátis), has the meaning "whole, unwounded, safe" (the part of the name corresponding to σως.:
    ecent publications have been leveling harsh criticism against the depiction of criminals in popular media, . To quote Aristotle, tragic events ”occur contrary to expectation yet still on account of one anotherµ; the .. 12 As a matter of fact, Scorsese himself envisioned Casino as a take on the tragic genre, albeit with a different.

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Socratic thought which challenged conventions, especially in stressing a simplistic way of living, became divorced from Plato's more detached and philosophical pursuits. This idea was inherited by one of Socrates' older students, Antisthenes , who became the originator of another philosophy in the years after Socrates' death: The idea of asceticism being hand in hand with an ethical life or one with piety, ignored by Plato and Aristotle and somewhat dealt with by the Cynics, formed the core of another philosophy in BC— Stoicism when Zeno of Citium would discover Socrates' works and then learn from Crates , a Cynic philosopher.

While some of the later contributions of Socrates to Hellenistic Era culture and philosophy as well as the Roman Era have been lost to time, his teachings began a resurgence in both medieval Europe and the Islamic Middle East alongside those of Aristotle and Stoicism.

Socrates is mentioned in the dialogue Kuzari by Jewish philosopher and rabbi Yehuda Halevi in which a Jew instructs the Khazar king about Judaism. Socrates' stature in Western philosophy returned in full force with the Renaissance and the Age of Reason in Europe when political theory began to resurface under those like Locke and Hobbes.

To this day, the Socratic Method is still used in classroom and law school discourse to expose underlying issues in both subject and the speaker. Over the past century, numerous plays about Socrates have also focused on Socrates' life and influence.

One of the most recent has been Socrates on Trial , a play based on Aristophanes' Clouds and Plato's Apology , Crito, and Phaedo, all adapted for modern performance. Evaluation of and reaction to Socrates has been undertaken by both historians and philosophers from the time of his death to the present day with a multitude of conclusions and perspectives. Although he was not directly prosecuted for his connection to Critias, leader of the Spartan-backed Thirty Tyrants , and "showed considerable personal courage in refusing to submit to [them]", he was seen by some as a figure who mentored oligarchs who became abusive tyrants, and undermined Athenian democracy.

The Sophistic movement that he railed at in life survived him, but by the 3rd century BC, was rapidly overtaken by the many philosophical schools of thought that Socrates influenced. Socrates' death is considered iconic and his status as a martyr of philosophy overshadows most contemporary and posthumous criticism. However, Xenophon mentions Socrates' "arrogance" and that he was "an expert in the art of primping" or "self-presentation". Some modern scholarship holds that, with so much of his own thought obscured and possibly altered by Plato, it is impossible to gain a clear picture of Socrates amid all the contradictory evidence.

That both Cynicism and Stoicism , which carried heavy influence from Socratic thought, were unlike or even contrary to Platonism further illustrates this. The ambiguity and lack of reliability serves as the modern basis of criticism—that it is nearly impossible to know the real Socrates.

Some controversy also exists about Socrates' attitude towards homosexuality [] and as to whether or not he believed in the Olympian gods , was monotheistic, or held some other religious viewpoint.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the classical Greek philosopher. For other uses of Socrates, see Socrates disambiguation. For the Attic orator, see Isocrates.

Prodicus , Anaxagoras , Archelaus. Virtually all subsequent Western philosophy. Trial of the generals. Plato from Raphael 's The School of Athens — Retrieved 20 November Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy. Retrieved 19 November Reason and Religion in Socratic Philosophy. But the year of Socrates' birth is probably only an inference from Plato [who] has Socrates casually describe himself as having lived seventy years.

Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher. Kahn - Ethics - p. Fictions of a Philosopher. Socrates, of course, is the only of these philosophers who didn't write anything Interviews from the Harvard Review of Philosophy p.

The historical Socrates undoubtedly existed, but he did not write anything Socrates is especially pure because he does not write. Blitz, Ann Ward - Socrates: Reason or Unreason as the Foundation of European Identity p. As Socrates did not write anything and assigned to the living word and to dialogue with his followers all of his thought, The Schools of the Imperial Age p.

Socrates explains to Meno: This is why Socrates did not write anything; he had nothing to teach that could be fixed in writing New Ideas for an Old Relationship p. They achieved renown precisely because they did not write at all.

The vice of graphorrhoea was frequently contrasted with the virtue of such ancient philosophers as Pythagoras, Aristarchus, Favorinus and Socrates, who did not write anything Ethics for Criminal Justice Professionals.

Fear and Loathing in Ancient Athens: Religion and Politics During the Peloponnesian War. The Rise and Fall of the Socratic Problem pp. In addition to Plato and Xenophon , each of the following is credited by some source as having added to the genre: It is unlikely Plato was the first in this field Vlastos, p. The Cambridge Companion to Socrates p. An Interpretation of Plato's Phaedo p.

The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form p. A Guide for the Perplexed p. A Companion to Socrates pp. A translation of one fragment reads: Spellbinder of the Greeks, who made them precise in language.

Sneerer trained by rhetoroticians, sub-Attic ironist. Celenza , Angelo Poliziano's Lamia: Woodruff - Reason and Religion in Socratic Philosophy p.

Drama in Greek Sicily and South Italy p. King , One Hundred Philosophers p. Gill - he Death of Socrates p. A Brief History - p. Brisson - Griechische Biographie in hellenistischer Zeit: Akten des internationalen Kongresses vom His Evidence on Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans.

Mediterranean Expulsion Rituals and Pauline Soteriology p. The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature reprint, 3rd ed.

Translated by Fowler, Harold N. Sellars, , Simon the Shoemaker and the Problem of Socrates. Classical Philology 98, Intellectual Critics of Popular Rule p. Papers from a Conference Held in Liverpool in July p. Larcher's Notes on Herodotus: The School of History: Athens in the Age of Socrates p.

Law, Legislation and Liberty, Volume 3: The Political Order of a Free People. The Laws of Plato. Taylor Walton and Maberly. The Death of Socrates.

Frantic violence, became the attribute of manliness; cautious plotting, a justifiable means of self-defense. The advocate of extreme measures was always trustworthy; his opponent a man to be suspected. US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved September 12, Did Socrates Commit Suicide?

Philosophy , Volume 53, Issue , pp — Crooks - Socrates' Last Words: Socrates and Legal Obligation. U of Minnesota Press. An Analysis of Plato's Crito. Frey - Did Socrates commit suicide? The Making of History and the World to Come p. Reflections on an Open Question". A Companion to Socrates. Some Second Thoughts" by Eric A. Sources of Global History, Volume I: Socrates and the Political Community: The Rosen Publishing Group.

University of Toronto Press, , p. The Religion of Socrates. Voices of Reason, Voices of Insanity: Studies of Verbal Hallucinations. Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form. The Cambridge Companion to Socrates. An Introduction to Western Philosophy. Socrates, Athens and the Search for the Good Life.

Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Philosophers and Religious Leaders. The Death of Socrates: Hero, Villain, Chatterbox, Saint. Guthrie , Socrates , Cambridge University Press, , p. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus , although it is possible that he feared anti-Macedonian sentiments and left before Plato died.

There, he traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos , where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Pythias , either Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they also named Pythias. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants".

Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus.

According to the Suda , he also had an eromenos , Palaephatus of Abydus. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them. In physical science, Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, embryology , geography, geology, meteorology, physics and zoology.

In philosophy, he wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, economics, psychology, rhetoric and theology. He also studied education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge. Near the end of his life, Alexander and Aristotle became estranged over Alexander's relationship with Persia and Persians. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but the only evidence of this is an unlikely claim made some six years after the death.

Following Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens was rekindled. He died on Euboea of natural causes later that same year, having named his student Antipater as his chief executor and leaving a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.

Charles Walston argues that the tomb of Aristotle is located on the sacred way between Chalcis and Eretria and to have contained two styluses, a pen, a signet-ring and some terra-cottas as well as what is supposed to be the earthly remains of Aristotle in the form of some skull fragments. In general, the details of the life of Aristotle are not well-established. The biographies of Aristotle written in ancient times are often speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points.

With the Prior Analytics , Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic, [26] and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th century advances in mathematical logic. Aristotle "says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing else on an earlier date to speak of'". Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics ; the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly understood the logical implications.

Even Plato had difficulties with logic; although he had a reasonable conception of a deductive system , he could never actually construct one, thus he relied instead on his dialectic.

Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises , hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion would logically follow. Consequently, Plato realized that a method for obtaining conclusions would be most beneficial.

He never succeeded in devising such a method, but his best attempt was published in his book Sophist , where he introduced his division method.

What we today call Aristotelian logic , Aristotle himself would have labeled "analytics". The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics. Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, because it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century CE:.

The order of the books or the teachings from which they are composed is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the Categories, the analysis of propositions and their elementary relations in On Interpretation , to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms in the Analytics and dialectics in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations.

The first three treatises form the core of the logical theory stricto sensu: There is one volume of Aristotle's concerning logic not found in the Organon , namely the fourth book of Metaphysics. Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle's ontology , however, finds the universal in particular things, which he calls the essence of things, while in Plato's ontology, the universal exists apart from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar.

For Aristotle, therefore, epistemology is based on the study of particular phenomena and rises to the knowledge of essences, while for Plato epistemology begins with knowledge of universal Forms or ideas and descends to knowledge of particular imitations of these.

For Aristotle, "form" still refers to the unconditional basis of phenomena but is "instantiated" in a particular substance see Universals and particulars , below. In a certain sense, Aristotle's method is both inductive and deductive , while Plato's is essentially deductive from a priori principles. In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences.

In modern times, the scope of philosophy has become limited to more generic or abstract inquiries, such as ethics and metaphysics, in which logic plays a major role.

Today's philosophy tends to exclude empirical study of the natural world by means of the scientific method. In contrast, Aristotle's philosophical endeavors encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. In the larger sense of the word, Aristotle makes philosophy coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as "science".

Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term "scientific method". For Aristotle, "all science dianoia is either practical, poetical or theoretical" Metaphysics b By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics.

If logic or "analytics" is regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy, the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of: In the period between his two stays in Athens, between his times at the Academy and the Lyceum, Aristotle conducted most of the scientific thinking and research for which he is renowned today.

In fact, most of Aristotle's life was devoted to the study of the objects of natural science. Aristotle's metaphysics contains observations on the nature of numbers but he made no original contributions to mathematics. He did, however, perform original research in the natural sciences, e. Aristotle's writings on science are largely qualitative, as opposed to quantitative. Beginning in the 16th century, scientists began applying mathematics to the physical sciences, and Aristotle's work in this area was deemed hopelessly inadequate.

His failings were largely due to the absence of concepts like mass, velocity, force and temperature. He had a conception of speed and temperature, but no quantitative understanding of them, which was partly due to the absence of basic experimental devices, like clocks and thermometers. His writings provide an account of many scientific observations, a mixture of precocious accuracy and curious errors. For example, in his History of Animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than females.

Aristotle also had some scientific blind spots. He posited a geocentric cosmology that we may discern in selections of the Metaphysics , which was widely accepted up until the 16th century. From the 3rd century to the 16th century, the dominant view held that the Earth was the rotational center of the universe.

Because he was perhaps the philosopher most respected by European thinkers during and after the Renaissance, these thinkers often took Aristotle's erroneous positions as given, which held back science in this epoch.

For instance, he founded logic as a formal science and created foundations to biology that were not superseded for two millennia. Moreover, he introduced the fundamental notion that nature is composed of things that change and that studying such changes can provide useful knowledge of underlying constants. As quoted from Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology:. He [Aristotle] refers to many examples of changes now constantly going on, and insists emphatically on the great results which they must produce in the lapse of ages.

He instances particular cases of lakes that had dried up, and deserts that had at length become watered by rivers and fertilized. He points to the growth of the Nilotic delta since the time of Homer, to the shallowing of the Palus Maeotis within sixty years from his own time The changes of the earth, he says, are so slow in comparison to the duration of our lives, that they are overlooked; and the migrations of people after great catastrophes, and their removal to other regions, cause the event to be forgotten.

Aristotle proposed a fifth element, aether, in addition to the four proposed earlier by Empedocles. Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place. All that is earthly tends toward the center of the universe, i. Water tends toward a sphere surrounding the center. Air tends toward a sphere surrounding the water sphere.

Fire tends toward the lunar sphere in which the Moon orbits. When elements are moved out of their natural place, they naturally move back towards it. This is "natural motion" — motion requiring no extrinsic cause.

So, for example, in water, earthy bodies sink while air bubbles rise up; in air, rain falls and flame rises. Outside all the other spheres, the heavenly, fifth element, manifested in the stars and planets, moves in the perfection of circles. Aristotle defined motion as the actuality of a potentiality as such. Because actuality and potentiality are normally opposites in Aristotle, other commentators either suggest that the wording which has come down to us is erroneous, or that the addition of the "as such" to the definition is critical to understanding it.

Aristotle suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be attributed to four different types of simultaneously active factors. His name aitia is traditionally translated as "cause", but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as "explanation", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.

Additionally, things can be causes of one another, causing each other reciprocally, as hard work causes fitness and vice versa, although not in the same way or function, the one is as the beginning of change, the other as the goal.

Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or influence of cause upon effect. Moreover, Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects; its presence and absence may result in different outcomes. Simply it is the goal or purpose that brings about an event.

Our two dominoes require someone or something to intentionally knock over the first domino, because it cannot fall of its own accord. Aristotle marked two modes of causation: All causes, both proper and incidental, can be spoken of as actual or potential, and as generic or particular. The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that actual effects are assigned to operating causes, generic effects to generic causes, and particular effects to particular causes.

Aristotle held more accurate theories on some optical concepts than other philosophers of his day. The second oldest written evidence of a camera obscura after Mozi c. Aristotle's apparatus contained a dark chamber that had a single small hole, or aperture , to allow for sunlight to enter. Aristotle used the device to make observations of the sun and noted that no matter what shape the hole was, the sun would still be correctly displayed as a round object.

In modern cameras, this is analogous to the diaphragm. Aristotle also made the observation that when the distance between the aperture and the surface with the image increased, the image was magnified. According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause.

Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things. It is "from what is spontaneous" but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance. For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of "chance" it might be better to think of "coincidence": Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place, but with the result of another thing not intended taking place.

A person seeks donations. That person may find another person willing to donate a substantial sum. However, if the person seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of collecting donations, but for some other purpose, Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance. It must be unusual that something happens by chance.

In other words, if something happens all or most of the time, we cannot say that it is by chance. There is also more specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names "luck", that can only apply to human beings, because it is in the sphere of moral actions.

According to Aristotle, luck must involve choice and thus deliberation , and only humans are capable of deliberation and choice. Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of immaterial being," or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction.

Aristotle examines the concepts of substance and essence ousia in his Metaphysics Book VII , and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form.

In Book VIII, he distinguishes the matter of the substance as the substratum , or the stuff of which it is composed. For example, the matter of a house is the bricks, stones, timbers etc. The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form. With regard to the change kinesis and its causes now, as he defines in his Physics and On Generation and Corruption b—a, he distinguishes the coming to be from:.

The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality dynamis and actuality entelecheia in association with the matter and the form.

Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if the conditions are right and it is not prevented by something else. For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially dynamei plant, and if is not prevented by something, it will become a plant.

Potentially beings can either 'act' poiein or 'be acted upon' paschein , which can be either innate or learned. Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality. Because the end telos is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Referring then to our previous example, we could say that an actuality is when a plant does one of the activities that plants do. For that for the sake of which a thing is, is its principle, and the becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired.

For animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have sight that they may see. In summary, the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a house and both the activity of building and the form of the final house are actualities, which is also a final cause or end.

Then Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality.

With this definition of the particular substance i. Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: However, according to Aristotle, the potential being matter and the actual one form are one and the same thing. Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property or a relation to other things.

When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other.

Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but "good" is still a proper universal form.

Bertrand Russell is a 20th-century philosopher who agreed with Plato on the existence of "uninstantiated universals". Aristotle disagreed with Plato on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated.

Aristotle argued that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. According to Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated.

Consequently, according to Aristotle, if it is not the case that some universal can be predicated to an object that exists at some period of time, then it does not exist. In addition, Aristotle disagreed with Plato about the location of universals. As Plato spoke of the world of the forms, a location where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated.

So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms. In Aristotelian science, especially in biology, things he saw himself have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports of others, which contain error and superstition. He dissected animals but not humans; his ideas on how the human body works have been almost entirely superseded. Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail.

Aristotle certainly did research on the natural history of Lesbos , and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas. The works that reflect this research, the History of Animals , Generation of Animals , Movement of Animals , and Parts of Animals , contain some observations and interpretations, along with sundry myths and mistakes.

The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen. His observations on catfish , electric fish Torpedo and angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on cephalopods , namely, Octopus , Sepia cuttlefish and the paper nautilus Argonauta argo. His description of the hectocotyl arm , used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the 19th century.

An example of his methods, including dissection and observation, comes from the Generation of Animals , where he describes breaking open fertilized chicken eggs at intervals to discover the sequence in which visible organs are generated. Aristotle gave accurate descriptions of the four-chambered fore-stomachs of ruminants , and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark Mustelus mustelus.

Aristotle distinguished about species of birds, mammals and fishes. Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing mammals , and egg-bearing birds and fish. Invertebrates 'animals without blood' are insects, crustacea divided into non-shelled — cephalopods — and shelled and testacea molluscs.

Aristotle believed that intellectual purposes, i. Such a teleological view gave Aristotle cause to justify his observed data as an expression of formal design. Noting that "no animal has, at the same time, both tusks and horns," and "a single-hooved animal with two horns I have never seen," Aristotle suggested that Nature, giving no animal both horns and tusks, was staving off vanity, and giving creatures faculties only to such a degree as they are necessary. Book 7, chapter 1. As Aristotle sets out his ideas on the ideal form of the state and constitution he describes what he believes is the basis for a virtuous life in the best state.

What is best is happiness, and to be happy is an active exercise of virtue and a complete employment of it. Book 7, chapter viii. Again, Aristotle links the ideas he developed in Nicomachean Ethics with these in Politics.

In this case he shows how closely the teleological purposes of the state are bound up with happiness and virtue. Book 7, chapter xiii.

This statement could have been taken straight out of Nicomachean Ethics. It establishes clearly the connection between virtue and happiness. Here Aristotle develops his argument that the education of the children of citizens should be a public responsibility, since they are the future citizens and rulers of the state. Log in or register to post comments. We provide an educational supplement for better understanding of classic and contemporary literature.

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What is the purpose of amassing wealth? These are some of the questions Aristotle attempts to answer in one of the most intellectually stimulating works. Davis in his introduction. Students, teachers, and scholars will welcome this inexpensive new edition of the Benjamin Jowett translation, as will all readers interested in Greek thought, political theory, and depictions of the ideal state. Together with Plato and Socrates, Aristotle is responsible for Western philosophy as it is known today.

Aristotle, like the other famous Greek philosophers, stressed the importance of virtue, often advocating self improvement through constant learning. A table of contents is included. People are much more careful of their personal possessions than of those owned communally; they exercise care over common property only in so far as they are personally affected. The people become a monarch The politician in my country seeks votes, affection and respect, in that order. With few notable exceptions, they are simply men who want to be loved.

They enable a community to live collectively with one another. It's not about stabbing each other in the back; it's about enabling people to reach their dreams and pursue happiness. It is not with architecture that one can disseminate any political ideology. Architecture will always express the technical and social progress of the country in which it is carried out.

If we wish to give it the human content that it lacks, we must participate in the political struggle. If the people cannot trust their government to do the job for which it exists - to protect them and to promote their common welfare - all else is lost.

When will government cease being a nuisance to everybody? Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn't mean politics won't take an interest in you. I am a communist and my painting is a communist painting. But if I were a shoemaker, Royalist or Communist or anything else, I would not necessarily hammer my shoes in any special way to show my politics. If everyone would paint, political re-education would be unnecessary. One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors.

I find myself hoping a total end of all the unhappy divisions of mankind by party-spirit, which at best is but the madness of many for the gain of a few.

Politics I supposed to be the second-oldest profession. I have come to realize that it bears a very close resemblance to the first. Since the governments are in the pockets of businesses, who's going to control this most powerful institution? Business is more powerful than politics, and it's more powerful than religion. So it's going to have to be the vigilante consumer. The differences between revolution in art and revolution in politics are enormous. Revolution in art lies not in the will to destroy but in the revelation of what has already been destroyed.

Art kills only the dead. A politician should have three hats. One for throwing into the ring, one for talking through, and one for pulling rabbits out of if elected.

Political courage is not political suicide. It's all over the papers. The kids read it and they don't hang up their stockings. Now what happens to all the toys that are supposed to be in those stockings? The toy manufacturers are going to like that. So they have to lay off a lot of their employees And they're gonna say it with votes. It took a Hillary to raise a president We love the blather and boast, the charge and counter-charge of campaigning. Governing is a tougher deal.

True art, art that comes from the center of a people, from their very core, is inherently political. Moral cowardice that keeps us from speaking our minds is as dangerous to this country as irresponsible talk.

The government which takes in the consent of the greatest number of the people may justly be said to have the broadest bottom; and if it be terminated in the authority of one single person, it may be said to have the narrowest top; and so makes the firmest pyramid. I don't think politicians should be allowed into power who are not familiar with their bodies, because that's where our bottom line is.

And I know that they would make totally different decisions if they felt responsible simply for their own bodies. There is no connection between the political ideas of our educated class and the deep places of the imagination. A leader in the Democratic Party is a boss, in the Republican Party he is a leader. Life is politics, basically, but you don't just go to a gallery and put the words 'art' and 'politics' on the wall.

Most political speeches are unbelieveabull. Government is either organized benevolence or organized madness; its peculiar magnitude permits no shading. To be President of the United States, sir, is to act as advocate for a blind, venomous, and ungrateful client; still, one must make the best of the case, for the purposes of Providence. Politics is the art of preventing people from taking part in affairs which properly concern them.

Politics is like air and water. And you know if there is bad politics. See the people walking on the street: Popularity should be no scale for the election of politicians. If it would depend on popularity, Donald Duck and The Muppets would take seats in senate. Democracy is the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time.

I have yet to see a piece of writing, political or non-political, that does not have a slant. All writing slants the way a writer leans, and no man is born perpendicular. Democracy means simply the bludgeoning of the people by the people for the people. If a conservative is a liberal who's been mugged, a liberal is a conservative who's been arrested.

The world has witnessed the rise and fall of monarchy, the rise and fall of dictatorship, the rise and fall of feudalism, the rise and fall of communism, and the rise of democracy; and now we are witnessing the fall of democracy When politicians deny anything fiercely, there is a good chance that it will happen. Art quotes search by Author: Search for another category: Acheson Practical politics consists in ignoring facts. Bush I'm not a professional politician. D'Angelo Picasso is a communist.

Fields The whole dream of democracy is to raise the proletarian to the level of bourgeois stupidity. This is a cute little poster that displays some basic classroom rules. Dance in the rain today! The Unknown Dark Side to 13 of History's Favourite People - I don't know if all of these criticisms are true, but I do know that you should not idolize people. They are sure to disappoint. Oh but my darling,What if you fly.

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At a time when Athens sought to stabilize and recover from its humiliating defeat, the Athenian public may have been entertaining doubts about democracy as an efficient form of government. Socrates appears to have been a critic of democracy, [85] and some scholars interpret his trial as an expression of political infighting. Claiming loyalty to his city, Socrates clashed with the current course of Athenian politics and society. One of Socrates' purported offenses to the city was his position as a social and moral critic.

Rather than upholding a status quo and accepting the development of what he perceived as immorality within his region, Socrates questioned the collective notion of "might makes right" that he felt was common in Greece during this period.

Plato refers to Socrates as the " gadfly " of the state as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Athenians , insofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness. According to Plato's Apology , Socrates' life as the "gadfly" of Athens began when his friend Chaerephon asked the oracle at Delphi if anyone were wiser than Socrates; the Oracle responded that no-one was wiser.

Socrates believed the Oracle's response was not correct, because he believed he possessed no wisdom whatsoever. He proceeded to test the riddle by approaching men considered wise by the people of Athens—statesmen, poets, and artisans—in order to refute the Oracle's pronouncement. Questioning them, however, Socrates concluded: Socrates realized the Oracle was correct; while so-called wise men thought themselves wise and yet were not, he himself knew he was not wise at all, which, paradoxically, made him the wiser one since he was the only person aware of his own ignorance.

Socrates' paradoxical wisdom made the prominent Athenians he publicly questioned look foolish, turning them against him and leading to accusations of wrongdoing. Socrates defended his role as a gadfly until the end: Robin Waterfield suggests that Socrates was a voluntary scapegoat; his death was the purifying remedy for Athens' misfortunes. In this view, the token of appreciation for Asclepius the Greek god for curing illness would represent a cure for Athens' ailments.

One day during the year BC Socrates went on trial [90] and was subsequently found guilty of both corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of impiety asebeia [91] - "not believing in the gods of the state" , [92] and as a punishment sentenced to death, caused by the drinking of a mixture containing poison hemlock. Socrates' death is described at the end of Plato's Phaedo , although Plato was not himself present at the execution.

As to the veracity of Plato's account it seems possible he made choice of a number of certain factors perhaps omitting others in the description of the death, as the Phaedo description does not describe progress of the action of the poison Gill in concurrence with modern descriptions.

After he lay down, the man who administered the poison pinched his foot; Socrates could no longer feel his legs. The numbness slowly crept up his body until it reached his heart. Socrates chose to cover his face during the execution a6 Phaedo. Phaedo 61ce [99] states Socrates stated All of philosophy is training for death. Socrates last words are thought to be ironic C. Gill , [] or sincere J. Please, don't forget to pay the debt. Socrates turned down Crito's pleas to attempt an escape from prison.

Xenophon and Plato agree that Socrates had an opportunity to escape, as his followers were able to bribe the prison guards. There have been several suggestions offered as reasons why he chose to stay:. The full reasoning behind his refusal to flee is the main subject of the Crito. Frey has suggested in truth, Socrates chose to commit suicide. Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice.

It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The influence of this approach is most strongly felt today in the use of the scientific method , in which hypothesis is the first stage. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates' most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy , ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy.

The Socratic method has often been considered as a defining element of American legal education. To illustrate the use of the Socratic method, a series of questions are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledge. The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.

It was designed to force one to examine one's own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs. An alternative interpretation of the dialectic is that it is a method for direct perception of the Form of the Good.

Philosopher Karl Popper describes the dialectic as "the art of intellectual intuition, of visualising the divine originals, the Forms or Ideas, of unveiling the Great Mystery behind the common man's everyday world of appearances.

Hadot writes that "in Plato's view, every dialectical exercise, precisely because it is an exercise of pure thought, subject to the demands of the Logos , turns the soul away from the sensible world, and allows it to convert itself towards the Good. The beliefs of Socrates, as distinct from those of Plato, are difficult to discern.

Little in the way of concrete evidence exists to demarcate the two. The lengthy presentation of ideas given in most of the dialogues may be the ideas of Socrates himself, but which have been subsequently deformed or changed by Plato, and some scholars think Plato so adapted the Socratic style as to make the literary character and the philosopher himself impossible to distinguish.

Others argue that he did have his own theories and beliefs. Consequently, distinguishing the philosophical beliefs of Socrates from those of Plato and Xenophon has not proven easy, so it must be remembered that what is attributed to Socrates might actually be more the specific concerns of these two thinkers instead.

The matter is complicated because the historical Socrates seems to have been notorious for asking questions but not answering, claiming to lack wisdom concerning the subjects about which he questioned others. If anything in general can be said about the philosophical beliefs of Socrates, it is that he was morally, intellectually, and politically at odds with many of his fellow Athenians.

When he is on trial for heresy and corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens, he uses his method of elenchos to demonstrate to the jurors that their moral values are wrong-headed.

He tells them they are concerned with their families, careers, and political responsibilities when they ought to be worried about the "welfare of their souls". Socrates' assertion that the gods had singled him out as a divine emissary seemed to provoke irritation, if not outright ridicule. Socrates also questioned the Sophistic doctrine that arete virtue can be taught. He liked to observe that successful fathers such as the prominent military general Pericles did not produce sons of their own quality.

Socrates argued that moral excellence was more a matter of divine bequest than parental nurture. This belief may have contributed to his lack of anxiety about the future of his own sons. Also, according to A. Long, "There should be no doubt that, despite his claim to know only that he knew nothing, Socrates had strong beliefs about the divine", and, citing Xenophon's Memorabilia , 1. According to Xenophon, he was a teleologist who held that god arranges everything for the best.

Socrates frequently says his ideas are not his own, but his teachers'. He mentions several influences: Prodicus the rhetor and Anaxagoras the philosopher. Perhaps surprisingly, Socrates claims to have been deeply influenced by two women besides his mother: Plato's Symposium , a witch and priestess from Mantinea , taught him all he knows about eros , or love ; and that Aspasia , the mistress of Pericles , taught him the art of rhetoric.

Havelock , on the other hand, did not accept the view that Socrates' view was identical with that of Archelaus, in large part due to the reason of such anomalies and contradictions that have surfaced and "post-dated his death. Many of the beliefs traditionally attributed to the historical Socrates have been characterized as "paradoxical" because they seem to conflict with common sense.

The following are among the so-called Socratic paradoxes: The term, " Socratic paradox " can also refer to a self-referential paradox , originating in Socrates' utterance, "what I do not know I do not think I know", [] often paraphrased as " I know that I know nothing.

The statement " I know that I know nothing " is often attributed to Socrates, based on a statement in Plato's Apology. Therefore, Socrates is claiming to know about the art of love, insofar as he knows how to ask questions.

The only time he actually claimed to be wise was within Apology , in which he says he is wise "in the limited sense of having human wisdom". On the one hand, he drew a clear line between human ignorance and ideal knowledge; on the other, Plato's Symposium Diotima's Speech and Republic Allegory of the Cave describe a method for ascending to wisdom.

In Plato's Theaetetus a , Socrates compares his treatment of the young people who come to him for philosophical advice to the way midwives treat their patients, and the way matrimonial matchmakers act. This distinction is echoed in Xenophon's Symposium 3. For his part as a philosophical interlocutor, he leads his respondent to a clearer conception of wisdom, although he claims he is not himself a teacher Apology.

Perhaps significantly, he points out that midwives are barren due to age, and women who have never given birth are unable to become midwives; they would have no experience or knowledge of birth and would be unable to separate the worthy infants from those that should be left on the hillside to be exposed.

To judge this, the midwife must have experience and knowledge of what she is judging. Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on the pursuit of virtue rather than the pursuit, for instance, of material wealth. The idea that there are certain virtues formed a common thread in Socrates' teachings. These virtues represented the most important qualities for a person to have, foremost of which were the philosophical or intellectual virtues.

Socrates stressed that " the unexamined life is not worth living [and] ethical virtue is the only thing that matters.

It is argued that Socrates believed "ideals belong in a world only the wise man can understand", [] making the philosopher the only type of person suitable to govern others. In Plato's dialogue the Republic , Socrates openly objected to the democracy that ran Athens during his adult life.

It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates found short of ideal any government that did not conform to his presentation of a perfect regime led by philosophers, and Athenian government was far from that. It is, however, possible that the Socrates of Plato's Republic is colored by Plato's own views. During the last years of Socrates' life, Athens was in continual flux due to political upheaval. Democracy was at last overthrown by a junta known as the Thirty Tyrants , led by Plato's relative, Critias , who had once been a student and friend of Socrates.

The Tyrants ruled for about a year before the Athenian democracy was reinstated, at which point it declared an amnesty for all recent events.

Socrates' opposition to democracy is often denied, and the question is one of the biggest philosophical debates when trying to determine exactly what Socrates believed. The strongest argument of those who claim Socrates did not actually believe in the idea of philosopher kings is that the view is expressed no earlier than Plato's Republic , which is widely considered one of Plato's "Middle" dialogues and not representative of the historical Socrates' views.

Furthermore, according to Plato's Apology of Socrates , an "early" dialogue, Socrates refused to pursue conventional politics; he often stated he could not look into other's matters or tell people how to live their lives when he did not yet understand how to live his own. He believed he was a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of Truth, and did not claim to know it fully.

Socrates' acceptance of his death sentence after his conviction can also be seen to support this view. It is often claimed much of the anti-democratic leanings are from Plato, who was never able to overcome his disgust at what was done to his teacher. In any case, it is clear Socrates thought the rule of the Thirty Tyrants was also objectionable; when called before them to assist in the arrest of a fellow Athenian, Socrates refused and narrowly escaped death before the Tyrants were overthrown.

He did, however, fulfill his duty to serve as Prytanis when a trial of a group of Generals who presided over a disastrous naval campaign were judged; even then, he maintained an uncompromising attitude, being one of those who refused to proceed in a manner not supported by the laws, despite intense pressure. Socrates' apparent respect for democracy is one of the themes emphasized in the play Socrates on Trial by Andrew David Irvine.

Irvine argues that it was because of his loyalty to Athenian democracy that Socrates was willing to accept the verdict of his fellow citizens. As Irvine puts it, "During a time of war and great social and intellectual upheaval, Socrates felt compelled to express his views openly, regardless of the consequences.

As a result, he is remembered today, not only for his sharp wit and high ethical standards, but also for his loyalty to the view that in a democracy the best way for a man to serve himself, his friends, and his city—even during times of war—is by being loyal to, and by speaking publicly about, the truth.

In the Dialogues of Plato, though Socrates sometimes seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions , this is generally attributed to Plato. In the culmination of the philosophic path as discussed in Plato's Symposium , one comes to the Sea of Beauty or to the sight of "the beautiful itself" C ; only then can one become wise.

In the Symposium , Socrates credits his speech on the philosophic path to his teacher, the priestess Diotima , who is not even sure if Socrates is capable of reaching the highest mysteries. In the Meno , he refers to the Eleusinian Mysteries , telling Meno he would understand Socrates' answers better if only he could stay for the initiations next week. Further confusions result from the nature of these sources, insofar as the Platonic Dialogues are arguably the work of an artist-philosopher, whose meaning does not volunteer itself to the passive reader nor again the lifelong scholar.

According to Olympiodorus the Younger in his Life of Plato , [] Plato himself "received instruction from the writers of tragedy" before taking up the study of philosophy. His works are, indeed, dialogues; Plato's choice of this, the medium of Sophocles, Euripides, and the fictions of theatre, may reflect the ever-interpretable nature of his writings, as he has been called a "dramatist of reason". What is more, the first word of nearly all Plato's works is a significant term for that respective dialogue, and is used with its many connotations in mind.

Finally, the Phaedrus and the Symposium each allude to Socrates' coy delivery of philosophic truths in conversation; the Socrates of the Phaedrus goes so far as to demand such dissembling and mystery in all writing.

These indirect methods may fail to satisfy some readers. It was this sign that prevented Socrates from entering into politics. In the Phaedrus , we are told Socrates considered this to be a form of "divine madness", the sort of insanity that is a gift from the gods and gives us poetry , mysticism , love , and even philosophy itself.

Today, such a voice would be classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a command hallucination. Socrates practiced and advocated divination.

He was prominently lampooned in Aristophanes ' comedy The Clouds , produced when Socrates was in his mid-forties; he said at his trial according to Plato that the laughter of the theater was a harder task to answer than the arguments of his accusers.

In the play, Socrates is ridiculed for his dirtiness, which is associated with the Laconizing fad; also in plays by Callias , Eupolis , and Telecleides. Other comic poets who lampooned Socrates include Mnesimachus and Ameipsias. In all of these, Socrates and the Sophists were criticized for "the moral dangers inherent in contemporary thought and literature". Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle are the main sources for the historical Socrates; however, Xenophon and Plato were students of Socrates, and they may idealize him; however, they wrote the only extended descriptions of Socrates that have come down to us in their complete form.

Aristotle refers frequently, but in passing, to Socrates in his writings. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum , Theophrastus , wrote a series of books on botany — the History of Plants — which survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages.

Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times, such as carpos for fruit, and pericarpion for seed vessel. Rather than focus on formal causes, as Aristotle did, Theophrastus suggested a mechanistic scheme, drawing analogies between natural and artificial processes, and relying on Aristotle's concept of the efficient cause.

Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the reproduction of some higher plants, though this last discovery was lost in later ages. After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.

The first medical teacher at Alexandria, Herophilus of Chalcedon , corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries , noting that the latter pulse while the former do not. Ernst Mayr claimed that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance.

Aristotle's psychology , given in his treatise On the Soul peri psyche , often known by its Latin title De Anima , posits three kinds of soul "psyches": Humans have a rational soul. This kind of soul is capable of the same powers as the other kinds: Like the vegetative soul it can grow and nourish itself; like the sensitive soul it can experience sensations and move locally. The unique part of the human, rational soul is its ability to receive forms of other things and compare them. For Aristotle, the soul psyche was a simpler concept than it is for us today.

By soul he simply meant the form of a living being. Because all beings are composites of form and matter, the form of living beings is that which endows them with what is specific to living beings, e. According to Aristotle, memory is the ability to hold a perceived experience in your mind and to have the ability to distinguish between the internal "appearance" and an occurrence in the past.

Aristotle believed an "imprint" becomes impressed on a semi-fluid bodily organ that undergoes several changes in order to make a memory. A memory occurs when a stimuli is too complex that the nervous system semi-fluid bodily organ cannot receive all the impressions at once.

These changes are the same as those involved in the operations of sensation , common sense , and thinking. It does not matter if the experience was seen or heard, every experience ends up as a mental image in memory [63]. Aristotle uses the word "memory" for two basic abilities. First, the actual retaining of the experience in the mnemonic "imprint" that can develop from sensation. Second, the intellectual anxiety that comes with the "imprint" due to being impressed at a particular time and processing specific contents.

These abilities can be explained as memory is neither sensation nor thinking because is arises only after a lapse of time. Therefore, memory is of the past, [64] prediction is of the future, and sensation is of the present. The retrieval of our "imprints" cannot be performed suddenly. A transitional channel is needed and located in our past experiences, both for our previous experience and present experience. Aristotle proposed that slow-witted people have good memory because the fluids in their brain do not wash away their memory organ used to imprint experiences and so the "imprint" can easily continue.

However, they cannot be too slow or the hardened surface of the organ will not receive new "imprints". He believed the young and the old do not properly develop an "imprint". Young people undergo rapid changes as they develop, while the elderly's organs are beginning to decay, thus stunting new "imprints". Likewise, people who are too quick-witted are similar to the young and the image cannot be fixed because of the rapid changes of their organ.

Because intellectual functions are not involved in memory, memories belong to some animals too, but only those in which have perception of time. Because Aristotle believes people receive all kinds of sense perceptions and people perceive them as images or "imprints", people are continually weaving together new "imprints" of things they experience. In order to search for these "imprints", people search the memory itself. Recollection occurs when one experience naturally follows another.

If the chain of "images" is needed, one memory will stimulate the other. If the chain of "images" is not needed, but expected, then it will only stimulate the other memory in most instances. When people recall experiences, they stimulate certain previous experiences until they have stimulated the one that was needed. Recollection is the self-directed activity of retrieving the information stored in a memory "imprint" after some time has passed.

Retrieval of stored information is dependent on the scope of mnemonic capabilities of a being human or animal and the abilities the human or animal possesses. Animals that have perception of time will be able to retrieve memories of their past observations.

Remembering involves only perception of the things remembered and of the time passed. Recollection of an "imprint" is when the present experiences a person remembers are similar with elements corresponding in character and arrangement of past sensory experiences.

When an "imprint" is recalled, it may bring forth a large group of related "imprints". Aristotle believed the chain of thought, which ends in recollection of certain "imprints", was connected systematically in three sorts of relationships: These three laws make up his Laws of Association.

Aristotle believed that past experiences are hidden within our mind. A force operates to awaken the hidden material to bring up the actual experience. According to Aristotle, association is the power innate in a mental state, which operates upon the unexpressed remains of former experiences, allowing them to rise and be recalled. Before understanding Aristotle's views on dreams, first his idea of sleep must be examined.

Aristotle gives an account of his explanation of sleep in On Sleep and Wakefulness. Dreams do not involve actually sensing a stimulus because, as discussed, the senses do not work as they normally do during sleep. When a person perceives a stimulus and the stimulus is no longer the focus of their attention, it leaves an impression. Since impressions are all that are left and not the exact stimuli, dreams will not resemble the actual experience that occurred when awake.

During sleep, a person is in an altered state of mind. When asleep, a person is unable to make judgments as they do when they are awake [70] Due to the senses not functioning normally during sleep, they are unable to help a person judge what is happening in their dream. One component of Aristotle's theory of dreams introduces ideas that are contradictory to previously held beliefs.

Aristotle also includes in his theory of dreams what constitutes a dream and what does not. He claimed that a dream is first established by the fact that the person is asleep when they experience it.

Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function ergon of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle identified such an optimum activity of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, eudaimonia , generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being".

Aristotle taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be habituated not deliberately, but by teachers, and experience, leading to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best things. When the best people come to live life this way their practical wisdom phronesis and their intellect nous can develop with each other towards the highest possible human virtue, the wisdom of an accomplished theoretical or speculative thinker, or in other words, a philosopher.

In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled Politics. Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, "for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part".

Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner. The common modern understanding of a political community as a modern state is quite different from Aristotle's understanding. The aim of the city is not just to avoid injustice or for economic stability, but rather to allow at least some citizens the possibility to live a good life, and to perform beautiful acts: Excerpt from a speech by the character 'Aristotle' in the book Protrepticus Hutchinson and Johnson, p.

Aristotle considered epic poetry , tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be imitative , each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average.

Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation — through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama. While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics comprised two books — one on comedy and one on tragedy — only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions.

Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic.

Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop. Aristotle's analysis of procreation describes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive female element. On this ground, feminist metaphysics have accused Aristotle of misogyny [87] and sexism.

Aristotle wrote his works on papyrus scrolls, or rolls, which was the common writing medium of that era. Whereas the lost works appear to have been originally written with an intent for subsequent publication, the surviving works do not appear to have been so. Some of the individual works within the corpus, including the Constitution of Athens , are regarded by most scholars as products of Aristotle's "school," perhaps compiled under his direction or supervision. Still others acquired Aristotle's name through similarities in doctrine or content, such as the De Plantis, possibly by Nicolaus of Damascus.

Other works in the corpus include medieval palmistries and astrological and magical texts whose connections to Aristotle are purely fanciful and self-promotional.

According to a distinction that originates with Aristotle himself, his writings are divisible into two groups: The 5th century neoplatonist Ammonius Hermiae writes that Aristotle's writing style is deliberately obscurantist so that "good people may for that reason stretch their mind even more, whereas empty minds that are lost through carelessness will be put to flight by the obscurity when they encounter sentences like these.

Another common assumption is that none of the exoteric works is extant — that all of Aristotle's extant writings are of the esoteric kind.

Current knowledge of what exactly the exoteric writings were like is scant and dubious, though many of them may have been in dialogue form.

Fragments of some of Aristotle's dialogues have survived. Perhaps it is to these that Cicero refers when he characterized Aristotle's writing style as "a river of gold"; [97] it is hard for many modern readers to accept that one could seriously so admire the style of those works currently available to us. One major question in the history of Aristotle's works, then, is how were the exoteric writings all lost, and how did the ones we now possess come to us.

Neleus supposedly took the writings from Athens to Scepsis , where his heirs let them languish in a cellar until the 1st century BC, when Apellicon of Teos discovered and purchased the manuscripts, bringing them back to Athens. According to the story, Apellicon tried to repair some of the damage that was done during the manuscripts' stay in the basement, introducing a number of errors into the text.

Carnes Lord attributes the popular belief in this story to the fact that it provides "the most plausible explanation for the rapid eclipse of the Peripatetic school after the middle of the third century, and for the absence of widespread knowledge of the specialized treatises of Aristotle throughout the Hellenistic period, as well as for the sudden reappearance of a flourishing Aristotelianism during the first century B.

First, the condition of the texts is far too good for them to have suffered considerable damage followed by Apellicon's inexpert attempt at repair.

Second, there is "incontrovertible evidence," Lord says, that the treatises were in circulation during the time in which Strabo and Plutarch suggest they were confined within the cellar in Scepsis. Third, the definitive edition of Aristotle's texts seems to have been made in Athens some fifty years before Andronicus supposedly compiled his.

And fourth, ancient library catalogues predating Andronicus' intervention list an Aristotelian corpus quite similar to the one we currently possess. Lord sees a number of post-Aristotelian interpolations in the Politics , for example, but is generally confident that the work has come down to us relatively intact.

On the one hand, the surviving texts of Aristotle do not derive from finished literary texts, but rather from working drafts used within Aristotle's school, as opposed, on the other hand, to the dialogues and other "exoteric" texts which Aristotle published more widely during his lifetime.

The consensus is that Andronicus of Rhodes collected the esoteric works of Aristotle's school which existed in the form of smaller, separate works, distinguished them from those of Theophrastus and other Peripatetics, edited them, and finally compiled them into the more cohesive, larger works as they are known today.

More than years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived. He contributed to almost every field of human knowledge then in existence, and he was the founder of many new fields. According to the philosopher Bryan Magee , "it is doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did". Despite these achievements, the influence of Aristotle's errors is considered by some to have held back science considerably.

Bertrand Russell notes that "almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine". Russell also refers to Aristotle's ethics as "repulsive", and calls his logic "as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy". Russell notes that these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.

The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained "Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?

Greek Christian scribes played a crucial role in the preservation of Aristotle by copying all the extant Greek language manuscripts of the corpus.

The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle were John Philoponus , Elias, and David in the sixth century, and Stephen of Alexandria in the early seventh century. Aristotle was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early Islamic theology. Most of the still extant works of Aristotle, [] as well as a number of the original Greek commentaries, were translated into Arabic and studied by Muslim philosophers, scientists and scholars.

Averroes , Avicenna and Alpharabius , who wrote on Aristotle in great depth, also influenced Thomas Aquinas and other Western Christian scholastic philosophers. Alkindus considered Aristotle as the outstanding and unique representative of philosophy [] and Averroes spoke of Aristotle as the "exemplar" for all future philosophers.

In accordance with the Greek theorists, the Muslims considered Aristotle to be a dogmatic philosopher, the author of a closed system, and believed that Aristotle shared with Plato essential tenets of thought. Some went so far as to credit Aristotle himself with neo-Platonic metaphysical ideas. With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West, Aristotle was practically unknown there from c.

AD to c. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, interest in Aristotle revived and Latin Christians had translations made, both from Arabic translations, such as those by Gerard of Cremona , [] and from the original Greek, such as those by James of Venice and William of Moerbeke.

After Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology, working from Moerbeke's translations, the demand for Aristotle's writings grew and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe that continued into the Renaissance. These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages.

It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods.

The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having. The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell ,. Tutti lo miran, tutti onor li fanno: I saw the Master there of those who know, Amid the philosophic family, By all admired, and by all reverenced; There Plato too I saw, and Socrates, Who stood beside him closer than the rest.

The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle. It is Martin Heidegger , not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. Ayn Rand accredited Aristotle as "the greatest philosopher in history" and cited him as a major influence on her thinking.

More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.

The works of Aristotle that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school. Reference to them is made according to the organization of Immanuel Bekker 's Royal Prussian Academy edition Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica , Berlin, — , which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works.

He was the first person known to conjecture, in his book Meteorology , the existence of a landmass in the southern high-latitude region and call it "Antarctica".

Aristoteles is a crater on the Moon bearing the classical form of Aristotle's name. The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast. The following references are only a small selection. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Aristotle disambiguation. Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippus , c.

The alabaster mantle is modern. Aristotelian logic Syllogism Problem of future contingents Aristotelian metaphysics Theory of the soul Virtue ethics. Parmenides Socrates Plato Heraclitus Democritus. Virtually all subsequent Western philosophy , Christian philosophy and pre- Enlightenment science; also much Islamic and Jewish philosophy see List of writers influenced by Aristotle.

For more details on this topic, see Non-Aristotelian logic. Potentiality and actuality Aristotle. Aristotle's theory of universals. Theophrastus and Historia Plantarum Theophrastus. For more details on this topic, see Medicine in ancient Greece. Rhetoric Aristotle and Poetics Aristotle. Aristotle's views on women. Politics is developing more comedians than radio ever did. A statesman who keeps his ear permanently glued to the ground will have neither elegance of posture nor flexibility of movement.

Democracy becomes a government of bullies, tempered by editors. Capitalism has resulted in material well-being but spiritual bankruptcy. I never vote for anyone; I always vote against. The whole dream of democracy is to raise the proletarian to the level of bourgeois stupidity. So, Two cheers for Democracy: People getting their fundamental interests wrong is what American political life is all about.

By , politics will simply fade away. We will not see any political parties. Politics is not the art of the possible. It consists in choosing between the disastrous and the unpalatable. If I seem to take part in politics, it is only because politics encircles us today like the coil of a snake from which one cannot get out, no matter how much one tries.

I wish therefore to wrestle with the snake. Those who say religion has nothing to do with politics do not know what religion is. Of the various forms of government which have prevailed in the world, an hereditary monarchy seems to present the fairest scope for ridicule. If Roosevelt were alive today, he'd turn over in his grave. I'm not really involved with politics I'm living in my cocoon with my classical music around.

Those who invoke history will certainly be heard by history. And they will have to accept its verdict. There is only one art, whose sole criterion is the power, the authenticity, the revelatory insight, the courage and suggestiveness with which it seeks its truth.

Thus, from the standpoint of the work and its worth it is irrelevant to which political ideas the artist as a citizen claims allegiance, which ideas he would like to serve with his work or whether he holds any such ideas at all. In case anyone wonders, when they see the 'hammer and sickle' on the funnel of the ship It was purely political They were using me to get votes, and I was an easy target. But now they are out of power.

Every politician should have been born an orphan and remain a bachelor. Why, Sir, most schemes of political improvement are very laughable things. Avoiding political influence in our thinking as artists is nearly impossible in this plugged-in media-stimulated world. The emotion of choice is fear.

The face of totalitarianism turned out to be a mask — obviously — but the face of Capitalism has no face at all. Politics is not about objective reality, but virtual reality Strangely, the faithful understand that the movie is not true — yet also maintain that it is the only truth that matters. From the recognition of that truth has come democracy.

Wars and elections are both too big and too small to matter in the long run. The daily work - that goes on, it adds up. Paradoxically, the problems of politics often arise not in the form of a problem of scarcity, but as one of abundance. University politics are vicious precisely because the stakes are so small. Democracy with its semi-civilization sincerely cherishes junk. The artist's power should be spiritual. But the power of the majority is material.

When these worlds meet occasionally, it is pure coincidence. Democracy does not guarantee equality of conditions — it only guarantees equality of opportunity. The hope of a new politics does not lie in formulating a left-wing reply to the right - it lies in rejecting conventional political categories. Democracy matters, because all of us need to be able to make a difference. It's called political economy because it is has nothing to do with either politics or economy.

As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Once you touch the biographies of human beings, the notion that political beliefs are logically determined collapses like a pricked balloon. Democracy is the form of government that gives every man the right to be his own oppressor. At a time when political correctness is valued over honesty I would also like to say, 'Right on!

The government has been satirized for your protection. Politics is the art of looking for trouble, finding it everywhere, diagnosing it incorrectly and applying the wrong remedies. Politicians only ever use predictive text. Politics is an act of faith; you have to show some kind of confidence in the intellectual and moral capacity of the public. Politics will eventually be replaced by imagery. The politician will be only too happy to abdicate in favor of his image, because the image will be much more powerful than he could ever be.

Under democracy, one party always devotes its chief energies to trying to prove that the other party is unfit to rule - and both commonly succeed, and are right. A politician is an animal which can sit on a fence and yet keep both ears to the ground.

Political art can be beautiful too. Democracy is not a spectator sport, it's a participatory event. If we don't participate in it, it ceases to be a democracy. So Obama will rise or fall based not so much on what he does but on what we do to support him. The way people in democracies think of the government as something different from themselves is a real handicap.

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Greek philosopher Aristotle, 9 comments on “ 40 Famous Aristotle Quotes on Ethics, Love, Life, Politics and Education. Poetics Quotes ― Aristotle, Poetics. tags: it has been customary to accept the criticism of art from a man who may or may not have been artist himself. In literary criticism: Antiquity of all discussions of literature—Aristotle countered Plato’s indictment by stressing what is normal and useful about literary art.

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PHILOSOPHY - Aristotle